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Solvents used in Chromatography

Solvents used in Chromatography

Solvent Properties for Chromatographers
Listed from apolar to polar

SolventPolarity IndexRefractive Index at 20°CUV Cut off (nm)Boiling Point °CViscosity (cPoise)Solubility in Water (% w/w)More Info (Coloured fields most popular in NPLC)
n-Heptane0.01.38720098,00.390,0003n-Heptane **
n-Hexane *0.01.375200690.330.001n-Hexane **
n-Pentane0.01.358200360.230.004n.-Pentane
1-chlorobutane*1.01.4081220780.05
n-butylchloride
Cyclohexane0.21.426200811.00.01Cyclohexane
Isooctane0.1 - 0.31.4042100.5Isooctane
Trichloroethylene1.01.477,273,87,0.57,"0,57Trichloroethylene
Tetrachloromethane ,Carbon tetrachloride1.61.466263770.970.08Tetrachloromethane
Triethylamine1.81.4012800.38
Di-Iso-Propyl Ether2.21.368220680.37Di-Iso-Propyl Ether
Toluene,2.3 -2.4,"1,496",285,111,0.59,0.051,Toluene
p-Xylene2.41.5002901390.610.018p-Xylene
Methyl-t-Butyl Ether;t-Butyl Methyl Ether *2.51.369210550.274.8Methyl-t-Butyl Ether **
Benzene3.01.50128080.10.650.18Benzene
Benzyl ether3.3Benzyl ether
Diethyl Ether2.81.353220350.326.89Diethyl Ether **
Trichloromethane; Chlorofom *4.11.445924561.20.570.815Trichloromethane **
Dichloromethane
Methylene Chloride *
3.11.424234410.441.66Dichloromethane **
1.2 Dichloroethane
Ethylene chloride
3.51.444225840.790.81Ethylene chloride
n-Butyl Acetate3.91.3992151182.897.89Butyl Acetate
Iso Propylalcohol3.91.37721082109901002-Propanol **
n- Butanol4.01.3942541250.730.43n- Butanol
n-Propanol : 1-Propanol4.01.384210972.3100n-Propanol
Tetrahydrofurane*4.01.407215650.55100Tetrahydrofurane **
Ethyl Acetate*4.4 - 4.31.372260770.458.7Ethyl Acetate**
Methyl Ethyl Ketone ; 2-Butanone4.5 - 4.71.379329800.4524Methyl Ethyl Ketone
1.4 Dioxane; p-Dioxane4.81.4222151011.541001.4 Dioxane
Acetone5.1 - 5.41.359330560.32100 Acetone
Ethanol5.21.360210781.2100Ethanol
Acetonitrile*5.8 - 6.21.344190820.37100Acetonitrile**
Acetic Acid6.21.3722301181.26100acetic acid
N-Dimethylformamide6.41.4312681550.92100Dimethylformamide
Diethylacetamid6.5268
Methanol*6.6 - 5.11.329205650.60100Methanol **
Dimethyl Sulfoxid.7.21.4782681892.8100Dimethyl Sulfoxid
Methyl Sulfoxide
Formamide7.31.446260210.53.76100Formamide
Water *9.01.3332001001.0100
Aqueous PuffersolutionBuffers

* popular eluents in chromatography , ** popular solvents in production scale chromatography
Solvent Miscibility Table

Solvent Terms
Protic vs aprotic solvents

In chemistry a protic solvent is a solvent that has a hydrogen atom bound to an oxygen (as in a hydroxyl group) or a nitrogen (as in an amine group). In general terms, any solvent that contains labile H+ is called a protic solvent. The molecules of such solvents readily donate protons (H+) to reagents. Conversely, aprotic solvents cannot donate hydrogen.